Kara L. Nelson

Recent Publications

Journal Papers

Li, Y., W.A. Tarpeh, K.L. Nelson, T.J. Strathman (in press) Demonstration and Quantitative Evaluation of an Integrated System for Complete Valorization of Wastewater Algal Biomass.  

Tarpeh, W.A., I. Wald, M.O. Omollo, T. Egan, and K.L. Nelson. (2018) “Evaluating Ion Exchange for Nitrogen Recovery from Source-Separated Urine in Nairobi, Kenya.” Development Engineering3:188–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.deveng.2018.07.002.

Silverman, A.I., Sedlak, D.L., Nelson, K.L. (2018).   “Simplified process for determining rate constants for sunlight-dependent removal of trace organic and microbial contaminants in unit process open-water treatment wetlands.”  Environmental Engineering Science.

Nelson, K.L., A.B. Boehm, R.J. Davies-Colley, M.C. Dodd, T. Kohn, K.G. Linden, Y. Liu, P.A. Maraccini, K. McNeill, W.A. Mitch, T.H. Nguyen, K.M. Parker, R.A. Rodriguez, L.M. Sassoubre, A.I. Silverman, K.R. Wigginton, R.G. Zepp. (2018) “Sunlight-mediated inactivation of health-relevant microorganisms in water: a review of mechanisms
and modeling approaches.” Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts.

Kavvada, O., K.L. Nelson, and A. Horvath. (2018) “Spatial Optimization for Decentralized Non-Potable Water Reuse.” Environmental Research Letters13(6): 064001. doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aabef0.

Tarpeh, W.A., I. Wald, M. Wiprächtiger, and K.L. Nelson. (2018).“Effects of operating and design parameters on ion exchange columns for nutrient recovery from urine.”  Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology

Hong, P.-Y., T.R. Julian, M.-L. Pype, S.C. Jiang, K.L. Nelson, D. Graham, A. Pruden, and C.M. Manaia. (2018) “Reusing Treated Wastewater: Consideration of the Safety Aspects Associated with Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes.” Water10(3): 244. doi.org/10.3390/w10030244.

Reygadas, F., J.S. Gruber, L.Dreizler, K.L. Nelson, and I. Ray. (2018) “Measuring User Compliance and Cost Effectiveness of Safe Drinking Water Programs: A Cluster-Randomized Study of Household Ultraviolet Disinfection in Rural Mexico.” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.98(3): 824–34. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0440.

Tarpeh, W.A., J.M. Barazesh, T.Y. Cath, and K.L. Nelson. (2018) “Electrochemical Stripping to Recover Nitrogen from Source-Separated Urine.” Environmental Science & Technology. 52(3):1453-1460. doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b05488.

Kavvada, O., W.A. Tarpeh, A. Horvath, and K.L. Nelson. (2017) “Life-Cycle Cost and Environmental Assessment of Decentralized Nitrogen Recovery Using Ion Exchange from Source-Separated Urine through Spatial Modeling.” Environmental Science & Technology.51(21): 12061–71. doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02244.

Bear, S.E., M.T. Nguyen, J.T. Jasper, S. Nygren, K.L. Nelson, and D.L. Sedlak. (2017) “Removal of Nutrients, Trace Organic Contaminants, and Bacterial Indicator Organisms in a Demonstration-Scale Unit Process Open-Water Treatment Wetland.” Ecological Engineering,109: 76–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.09.017.

Finnerty, C.C., Lei Z., D.L. Sedlak, K.L. Nelson, and B. Mi. (2017) “Synthetic Graphene Oxide Leaf for Solar Desalination with Zero Liquid Discharge.” Environmental Science & Technology,51 (20): 11701–9. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b03040.

Chaudhry, R.M., Hamilton, K.A., Haas, C.N., and K.L. Nelson (2017) “Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (635). doi:10.3390/ijerph14060635

Bivins, A.W., T. Sumner, E. Kumpel, G. Howard, O. Cumming, I. Ross, K. Nelson, and J. Brown. (2017) “Estimating Infection Risks and the Global Burden of Diarrheal Disease Attributable to Intermittent Water Supply Using QMRA.” Environmental Science & Technology 51(13): 7542–51. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b01014.

Thebo, A. L., P. Drechsel, E. F. Lambin, and K. L. Nelson. (2017) “A Global, Spatially-Explicit Assessment of Irrigated Croplands Influenced by Urban Wastewater Flows.” Environmental Research Letters 12(7): 074008. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa75d1.

Steinbaum, L., L.H. Kwong, A. Ercumen, M.S. Negash, A.J. Lovely, S.M. Njenga, A.B. Boehm, A.J. Pickering, and K.L. Nelson. (2017) “Detecting and Enumerating Soil-Transmitted Helminth Eggs in Soil: New Method Development and Results from Field Testing in Kenya and Bangladesh.” PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11(4). doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005522.

Erickson, J.J., Smith, C.D., Goodridge, A.G., and K.L. Nelson. (2017) “Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama.” Water Research. 114:338-350.

Tarpeh, W.A., K.M. Udert, K.L. Nelson. (2017) “Comparing ion exchange adsorbents for nitrogen recovery from source-separated urine.” Environmental Science and Technology. 51(4):2373–2381. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b05816.

Emily Kumpel, Cleo Woelfle-Erskine, Isha Ray, and Kara L. Nelson. (2016). “Measuring household consumption and waste in unmetered, intermittent piped water systems.” Water Resources Research. 53. doi:10.1002/2016WR019702. 

Kavvada, O., A. Horvath, J. Stokes-Draut, T.P. Hendrickson, W.A. Eisenstein, and K.L. Nelson. (2016). “Assessing Location and Scale of Urban Non-Potable Water Reuse Systems for Life-Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Environmental Science and Technology. 50(24):13184–13194. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b02386.

Silverman, A.I. and K.L. Nelson. (2016). “Modeling the endogenous sunlight inactivation rates of laboratory strain and wastewater E. coli and enterococci using biological weighting functions.” Environmental Science and Technology. 50(22):12292–12301. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b03721

Mellor, J.E., K. Levy, J. Zimmerman, M. Elliott, J. Bartram, E. Carlton, T. Clasen, R. Dillingham, J. Eisenberg, R. Guerrant, D. Lantagne, J. Mihelcic, K. Nelson. (2016). “Planning for Climate Change: The Need for Mechanistic Systems-Based Approaches to Study Climate Change Impacts on Diarrheal Diseases.” Science of The Total Environment. 548–549: 82–90.

Ogunyoku, Temitope A., and Kara L. Nelson. (2016). “In-Toilet Disinfection of Fresh Fecal Sludge with Ammonia Naturally Present in Excreta.” Journal of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Development.

Kumpel, Emily, and Kara L. Nelson. (2016).  “Intermittent water supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.”  Environmental Science and Technology.  50(2):542-553.

Ercumen, A., Arnold, B.F., Kumpel, E., Burt, Z., Ray, I., Nelson, K.L., Colford, J.M. (2015). “Upgrading a Piped Water Supply from Intermittent to Continuous Delivery and Association with Waterborne Illness: A Matched Cohort Study in Urban India.”  PLoS Medicine. 12(10).

Reygadas, Fermin, Joshua S. Gruber, Isha Ray, and Kara L. Nelson. (2015). “Field Efficacy Evaluation and Post-Treatment Contamination Risk Assessment of an Ultraviolet Disinfection and Safe Storage System.” Water Research. 85:74–84.

Caroline Delaire, Case M. van Genuchten, Kara L. Nelson, Susan E. Amrose, Ashok J. Gadgil. (2015).  “E. coli attenuation by Fe electrocoagulation in synthetic Bengal groundwater: the effect of pH and natural organic matter.” Environmental Science and Technology. 49(16):9945-9953.

Hendrickson, T.P, Nguyen, M., Sukardi, M., Miot, A., Horvath, A., and K.L. Nelson.  (2015). “Environmental Performance of a Building-Scale Wastewater Treatment and Non-potable Reuse System.”  Environmental Science and Technology. 49(17):10303–10311.

Chaudhry, R.M., Holloway, R.W., Cath, T.Y., and K.L. Nelson (2015). “Impact Of Virus Surface Characteristics on Removal Mechanisms within Membrane Bioreactors.” Water Research. 84:144-52.

Nguyen, M.T., Jasper, J.T., Boehm, A.B., Nelson, K.L. (2015) “Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria in open-water unit process treatment wetlands: Modeling endogenous and exogenous inactivation rates” Water Research. 83:282-92.

Fidjeland, J., Nordin, A., Pecson, B.M., Nelson, K.L., and B. Vinnerås (2015).  ”Modeling the inactivation of Ascaris eggs as a function of ammonia concentration and temperature.” Water Research. 83:153-160.

Chaudhry, R.M., Drewes, J.E., and Nelson, K.L. (2015) “Mechanisms of Pathogenic Virus Removal In A Full-Scale Membrane Bioreactor.” Environmental Science and Technology.

Silverman, A.I., Nguyen, M.T., Schilling, I.E., Wenk, J., and Nelson, K.L. (2015) “Sunlight inactivation of viruses in open water unit process treatment wetlands: Modeling endogenous and exogenous mechanisms.” Environmental Science and Technology49(5):2757–2766.

Silverman, A.I., Akrong, M.O., Drechsel, P., and K.L. Nelson. (2014) On-farm treatment of wastewater used for vegetable irrigation: bacteria and virus removal in small ponds in Accra, Ghana. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination. 4(4):276–86.

Mohanty, S.K., Cantrell, K.B., Nelson, K.L., and A.B. Boehm. (2014) “Efficacy of Biochar to Remove Escherichia Coli from Stormwater under Steady and Intermittent Flow.” Water Research. 61:288–96.

Nguyen, M.T., Silverman, A.I., Nelson, K.L. (2014) “Sunlight Inactivation of MS2 Coliphage in the Absence of Photosensitizers: Modeling the Endogenous Inactivation Rate Using a Photoaction Spectrum.”  Environmental Science and Technology. 48(7):3891–3898. 

Kumpel, E. and K.L. Nelson (2014) “Mechanisms affecting microbial water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.” Environmental Science and Technology. 48(5):27662775.

M.B. Fisher, K.L. Nelson (2014) “Inactivation of Escherichia coli by Polychromatic Simulated Sunlight: Evidence for a Fenton Mechanism Involving Iron, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Superoxide.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 80(3):935-942.

Kadir, K. and K.L. Nelson (2014) “Sunlight mediated inactivation mechanisms of Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in clear water versus waste stabilization pond water.” Water Research. 50:307-317.

Mohanty, S., Torkelson, A.A., Dodd, H., Nelson, K.L., and A.B. Boehm (2013). “Engineering solutions to improve the removal of fecal indicator bacteria by bioinfiltration systems during intermittent flow of stormwater.” Environmental Science and Technology.  47(19):10791–10798.

Silverman, A. I., Akrong, M., Amoah, P., Drechsel, P., and K.L. Nelson.  (2013).  “Quantification of human norovirus GII, human adenovirus, and fecal indicator organisms in wastewater used for irrigation in Accra, Ghana.” Journal of Water and Health. 11(3):473-488.

Kumpel, E. and K.L. Nelson (2013). “Comparing microbial water quality in an intermittent and continuous piped water supply”.  Water Research. 47(14):5176-5188.

J.E. Grebel, S.K. Mohanty, A.A. Torkelson, A.B. Boehm, C.P. Higgins, R.M. Maxwell, K.L. Nelson, D.L. Sedlak (2013). “Engineered Infiltration Systems for Urban Stormwater Reclamation.”  Environmental Engineering Science. 30(8): 437-454.

J.T. Jasper, M.T. Nguyen, Z.L. Jones, N.S. Ismail, D.L. Sedlak, J.O. Sharp, R.G. Luthy, A.J. Horne, K.L. Nelson (2013). “Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluent.” Environmental Engineering Science. 30(8):421-436.

Gruber, J.S., Reygadas, F., Arnold, B.F., Ray, I., Nelson, K., and J. Colford (2013).  “A stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial of a household UV-disinfection and safe storage drinking water intervention in rural Baja California Sur, Mexico.”  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.  89(2):238-245.

Silverman, A.I., Peterson, B.M., Boehm, A.B., McNeill, K., Nelson, K.L. (2013). “Sunlight Inactivation of Human Viruses and Bacteriophages in Coastal Waters Containing Natural Photosensitizers.” Environmental Science and Technology47(4):1870–1878.

Enger, K.S., Nelson, K.L., Rose, J.B., and J.S. Eisenberg (2013). “The joint effects of efficacy and compliance: A study of household water treatment effectiveness.”  Water Research. 47(3):1181-1190.

Raynal, M., Villegas, E.N., and K.L. Nelson (2012).  “Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.” Journal of Water and Health. 10(4):594-604.

L.M. Sassoubre, K.L. Nelson, A.B. Boehm (2012) “Photoinactivation mechanisms of Enterococcus faecalis in seawater”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  78(21):7776-7785.

A.A. Torkelson, A.K. da Silva, D.C. Love, J.Y. Kim, J.P. Alper, B. Coox, J. Dahm, P. Kozodoy, R. Maboudian, & K.L. Nelson (2012)  “Investigation of quaternary ammonium silane-coated sand filter for the removal of bacteria and viruses from drinking water,” Journal of Applied Microbiology.  113(5):1196-1207. 

L.M. Sassoubre, D.C. Love, A.I. Silverman, K.L. Nelson and A.B. Boehm. (2012).  “Comparison of enterovirus and adenovirus concentration and enumeration methods in seawater from Southern California, USA and Baja Malibu, Mexico.”  Journal of Water and Health. 10(3):419-430.

Enger, K., Nelson, K., Clasen, T., Rose, J., and J.N.S. Eisenberg. (2012). “Linking quantitative microbial risk assessment and epidemiological data: Informing safe drinking water trials in developing countries.” Environmental Science and Technology. 46 (9): 5160–5167.

Clasen, T., Fabini, D.; Boisson, S., Taneja, J., Song, J., Aichinger, E., Bui, A.,; Dadashi, S., Schmidt, W.P., Burt, Z., Nelson, K (2012) “Making sanitation count: Developing and testing a device for assessing latrine use in low-income settings.”  Environmental Science and Technology, 46(6):3295-3303.  

Levy, K., Nelson, K. L., Hubbard, A. E., and Eisenberg, J. N. S. (2011). “Rethinking indicators of microbial drinking water quality for health studies in tropical developing countries: Case study in Northern Coastal Ecuador.” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 86(3):499-507.

Fisher, M.B., Iriarte, M., and K.L. Nelson (2011).  “Solar water disinfection (SODIS) of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and MS2 coliphage: Effects of additives and alternative container materials.” Water Research.  46(6):1745-1754. 

Fisher, M. B., Love, D. C., Schuech, R., & Nelson, K. L. (2011). “Simulated sunlight action spectra for inactivation of MS2 and PRD1 bacteriophages in clear water.” Environmental Science and Technology, 45(21):9249–9255. 

Kim, J.Y., Lee, C., Love, D.C., Sedlak, D.L., Yoon, J., and K.L. Nelson (2011) “Inactivation of MS2 coliphage by ferrous ion and nanoparticulate zero-valent iron nanoparticles.” Environmental Science and Technology, 45(16):6978-6984.

Kim, J.Y., H.J. Park, C. Lee, K.L. Nelson, D.L. Sedlak and J. Yoon, "Inactivation of Escherichia coli by Nanoparticulate Zerovalent Iron and Ferrous Ion," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, November 2010, Vol. 76(22), pp. 7668-7670.

Drake, J.L., E.J. Carpenter, M. Cousins, K.L. Nelson, A. Guido-Zarate and K. Loftin, "Effects of light and nutrients on seasonal phytoplankton succession in a temperate eutrophic coastal lagoon," Hydrobiologia, October 2010, Vol. 654(1), pp. 177-192.

Wang, D., S.S. Silkie, K.L. Nelson and S. Wuertz, "Estimating true human and animal host source contribution in quantitative microbial source tracking using the Monte Carlo method," Water Research, September 2010, Vol. 44(16), pp. 4760-4775, doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.07.076.

Love, D.C., A. Silverman and K.L. Nelson, "Human Virus and Bacteriophage Inactivation in Clear Water by Simulated Sunlight Compared to Bacteriophage Inactivation at a Southern California Beach," Environmental Science and Technology, September 2010, Vol. 44(18), 6965-6970, doi: 10.1021/es1001924.

Kim, J.Y., C. Lee, D.L. Sedlak, J. Yoon and K.L. Nelson, "Inactivation of MS2 coliphage by Fenton's reagent," Water Research, April 2010, Vol. 44(8), pp. 2647-2653, doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.01.025.

Silkie, S.S. and K.L. Nelson, "Concentrations of host-specific and generic fecal markers measured by quantitative PCR in raw sewage and fresh animal feces," Water Research, November 2009, Vol. 43(19), pp. 4860-4871, doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2009.08.017.

Boehm, A.B., Yamahara, K.M., D.C. Love, B.M. Peterson, K. McNeill and K.L. Nelson, "Covariation and Photoinactivation of Traditional and Novel Indicator Organisms and Human Viruses at a Sewage-Impacted Marine Beach," Environmental Science and Technology, November 2009, Vol. 43(21), pp. 8046-8052, doi: 10.1021/es9015124 .

Levy, K., A.E. Hubbard, K.L. Nelson and J.N.S. Eisenberg, "Drivers of Water Quality Variability in Northern Coastal Ecuador," Environmental Science & Technology, February 2009, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 1788-1797, doi: 10.1021/es8022545.

Levy, K., K.L. Nelson, A. Hubbard and J.N.S. Eisenberg, "Following the Water: A Controlled Study of Drinking Water Storage in Northern Coastal Ecuador," Environmental Health Perspectives, July 2008, Vol. 116, No. 11, pp. 1533-1540, doi: 10.1289/ehp.11296.

Nelson, K.L. and A. Murray, "Sanitation for Unserved Populations: Technologies, Implementation Challenges and Opportunities," Annual Review of Environment and Resources, July 2008, Vol. 33, pp. 119-151, doi: 10.1146/annurev.environ.33.022007.145142.

Lee, C., J.Y. Kim, W.I. Lee, K.L. Nelson, J. Yoon and D. Sedlak, "Bactericidal Effect of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles on Escherichia coli," Environmental Science & Technology, May 2008, Vol. 42, No. 13, pp. 4927-4933, doi: 10.1021/es800408u.

Silkie, S.S., M.P. Tolcher and K.L. Nelson, "Reagent Decontamination to Eliminate False Positives in E. coli qPCR," Journal of Microbiological Methods, March 2008, Vol. 72, No. 3, pp. 275-282, doi: 10.1016/j.mimet.2007.12.011.

Murray, A. , A. Horvath and K.L. Nelson, "Hybrid Life-Cycle Environmental and Cost Inventory of Sewage Sludge Treatment and End Use Scenarios: A Case Study from China," Environmental Science & Technology, March 2008, Vol. 42, No. 9, pp. 3163-3169, doi: 10.1021/es702256w.

Fisher, M. B., C. Keenan, K.L. Nelson and B.M. Voelker, "Speeding Up Solar Disinfection (SODIS): Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide, Temperature, pH, and Copper Plus Ascorbate on the Photoinactivation of E.Coli," Journal of Water and Health, January 2008, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 35-51.

Brownell, S.A., A.R. Chakrabarti, F.M. Kaser, L.G. Connelly, R.L. Peletz, F. Reygada, M.J. Lang, D. Kammen and K.L. Nelson, "Assessment of a Low-Cost, Point-of-Use, Ultraviolet Water Disinfection Technology," Journal of Water and Health, January 2008, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 53-65.

Williams, G.J., B. Sheikh, R.B. Holden, T.J. Kouretas and K.L. Nelson, "The Impact of Increased Loading Rate on Granular Media, Rapid Depth Filtration of Wastewater," Water Research, (online June 2007), November 2007, Vol. 41, No. 19, pp. 4535-4545, doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2007.06.018.

Kohn, T., M. Grandbois, K. McNeill and K.L. Nelson, "Association with Natural Organic Matter Enhances the Sunlight-mediated Inactivation of MS2 Coliphage by Singlet Oxygen," Environmental Science & Technology, June 2007, Vol. 41, No. 13, pp. 4626-4632, doi: 10.1021/es070295h.

Pecson, B. M., J. A. Barrios, B. E. Jimenez and K.L. Nelson, "The Effects of Temperature, pH, and Ammonia Concentration on the Inactivation of Ascaris Eggs in Sewage Sludge," Water Research, May 2007, Vol. 41, pp. 2893-2902, doi: 10.1016/j.watres.200703.040.

Kohn, T. and K.L. Nelson, "Sunlight-Mediated Inactivation of MS2 Coliphage Via Exogenous Singlet Oxygen Produced By Sensitizers in Natural Waters," Environmental Science & Technology, January 2007, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 192-197, doi: 10.1021/es061716i.

Pecson, B. M., J. A. Barrios, D. R. Johnson and K.L. Nelson, "A Real-time PCR Method For Quantifying Viable Ascaris Eggs Using the First Internally-Transcribed Spacer Region of Ribosomal DNA," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, December 2006, Vol. 72, No. 12, pp. 7864-7872, doi: 10.1128/AEMe01983-06.

Brownell, S.A and K.L. Nelson, "Inactivation of Single-celled Ascaris Suum Eggs by Low-pressure UV Radiation," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, March 2006, Vol. 72, pp. 2178-2184.